Scale buildup and iron contamination are two common examples of water problems. Scale buildup is caused by contamination of water by carbonates of calcium and magnesium. These compounds which are called chalks are found in places with abundant limestone deposits. The buildup of scale in pipes, containers, and other water pathways can damage plumbing systems and water appliances. A scale filter can be installed in homes that suffer from contamination of water by chalk. The scale filter uses a water softening system to remove or reduce chalk and other minerals from the water.
The same water softening system is used by iron filters to remove iron from the water. Similar to chalk, the presence of iron does not make drinking water dangerous. However, it can initiate or speed up the corrosion of metal pipes and other water components. The presence of iron can cut the life of plumbing components by around half. The frequent replacement or repair of the plumbing components can become very expensive in the long run.